1. Trips that many adults would consider the adventure of a lifetime-treks in Borneo, a sports tour to Barbados-appear to have become almost routine at some state schools.
本句话主句谓语是appear to have become，主语是trips，宾语是routine，状语是at some state schools。that many adults would consider the adventure of a lifetime-treks in Borneo, a sports tour to Barbados是定语从句，修饰trips。
2. In this globalised age, there is a good case for international travel and some parents say they can manage the cost of a school trip abroad more easily than a family holiday.
本句话是个并列句。句子1是there be句型，翻译为有……即可。for international travel是定语修饰case。句子2是some parents say they can manage the cost of a school trip abroad more easily than a family holiday.句子2中包含了一个that引导的宾语从句。从句中can manage是谓语，主语是they，宾语是the cost。of a school trip abroad是定语，修饰the cost。more easily是状语，修饰谓语动词。than a family holiday是比较状语。
3. The Department for Education’s guidance says schools can charge only for board and lodging if the trip is part of the syllabus, and that students receiving government aid are exempt from these costs.
本句话主干是The Department for Education’s guidance says（that）…and that…。Says后面引导的宾语从句省略了that，if引导的宾语从句修饰前一个schools…lodging这个句子，翻译时调整到该句前面即可。
4. Rising temperatures and overfishing in the pristine waters around the Antarctic could see king penguin populations pushed to the brink of extinction by the end of the century, according to a new study.
本句话主干是Rising temperatures and overfishing could see king penguin populations pushed to the brink of extinction。in the pristine waters around the Antarctic修饰Rising temperatures and overfishing。by the end of the century是时状语，修饰靠近它的谓语pushed to。according to a new study是状语，放在句首。
5. The report found that although some king penguins may be able to relocate to new breeding grounds closer to their retreating food source, suitable new habitats would be scarce.
本句话主干是The report found that although…，suitable new habitats would be scarce。里面包含了从句的嵌套，that宾语从句包含了although引导的让步状语从句，整体直接顺译即可。